Eye or shield graft
One of the methods with which the graft is practiced with regard to the olive tree is that called eye or scudetto. It is so defined because It is necessary to take a bud of the plant, keeping a small portion of bark together with it. It can be done either with a dormant bud, thus in about September, or with a vegetating bud towards March.
Aincisiome to T on the rootstock, then the shield that represents the scion is inserted, being careful to let the gem come out. If within two weeks the bud of the bud is green, it can be deduced that rooting has succeeded, if instead there is a rejection it will be possible to retry the grafting. It is important to spread the affected part with mastic and tie with raffia to keep the graft in place.
The horn grafting is particularly known because it is practicable directly also on the trunk of the olive tree or on large caliber branches. First of all it is necessary to cut the tree, the cut must be precise and we must avoid ruining the margins. Once this operation has been carried out, cuts are made, usually from three to ten, between the bark and the wood for a length of about ten centimeters.
In these cracks will be inserted the scions, one for each incision, matching the fresh fabrics of the sticks with those of the rootstock. This operation is fundamental for the success of the graft. The scions are, in this case, twigs that must be from the previous year with a couple of leaves on the end, which will then be blunted halfway before grafting. Everything must obviously be covered with mastic and tied with raffia.
The split graft is not particularly used, probably it is the least used. It is done by cutting the wood, in a similar way to what was done for the crown graft, then the grafting is used to make a longitudinal split about 10 centimeters deep. The scions must be prepared with the wedge-shaped tip and inserted into the rootstock at both ends of the split.
For this operation, a wooden wedge is first inserted into the slot to facilitate the maneuver. Indispensable, even here, it is necessary to make sure that the fresh fabrics of the scions match perfectly with those of the host plant, in order to maximize the chances of success. The mastic area is obviously sprinkled and the trunk tied. The twigs must be taken from young and healthy specimens and be grafted at the beginning of autumn or spring.
Olivo grafting: Cell coupling
The cell coupling is a little more complicated. An oblique cut must be made on the trunk, directed towards the inside of the stem and one perpendicular to the stem. It is these recesses that are obtained that are called cells and give the name to the operation. In this case, the olive tree will be quite small with a couple of buds.
It must be inserted between the bark of the rootstock and the wood, in such a way as to favor the vegetation and must always be used for a life of a year. This method is used for example in adult olive trees, to transform the appearance of the plant and create new branches where desired. Given the very firm grip of the scion there is no need for tying as it happens in all other types of graft.